Graphene materials for opto & electronic applications report
What is the industrial potential behind the graphene academic R&D hype?
$141M GRAPHENE MATERIALS MARKET IN 2024 WILL BE DRIVEN MAINLY BY TRANSPARENT CONDUCTIVE ELECTRODES AND ENERGY STORAGE APPLICATIONS
Graphene is a two-dimensional (2D) material with exceptional properties, such as ultrahigh electrical and thermal conductivities, wide-range optical transmittance and excellent mechanical strength and flexibility. These properties make it a promising material for emerging and existing applications in printed & flexible circuitry, ultrafast transistors, touch screens, advanced batteries and supercapacitors, ultrafast lasers, photodetectors and many other non-electronic applications.
Although graphene technology is still in its infancy, remarkable progress has been made in the last few years developing graphene production methods. Numerous opto and electronic devices based on graphene have been demonstrated on lab-scale models. However, the numerous challenges of graphene technology should not be underestimated. The lack of bandgap in graphene is its key fundamental challenge. Other technology challenges are related to the development of industrial methods to produce graphene with high and consistent quality at acceptable costs.
Although today there is no graphene-based electronic application in mass production, several companies already offer commercially graphene materials. The graphene material market value in 2013 was about $11 million, represented principally by the demand for the R&D and prototyping. Two scenarios for the future market growth are presented in the report. According to the base scenario, the global annual market value for graphene materials in opto and electronic applications will reach $141 million in 2024, featuring a 2013-2019 CAGR of 18.5%. Accelerated market growth is expected after 2019, with a 2019-2024 CAGR of 35.7%. In 2024, the graphene material market will be represented mainly by the demand for transparent conductive electrodes and advanced batteries and supercapacitors.
HOW CAN GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGES AND APPLICATION POTENTIAL BE TRANSFORMED INTO BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES?
In order to reach the best possible performance on lab-scale devices, high quality materials are required. Material suppliers able to consistently deliver high-quality materials have a competitive advantage on the graphene market.
The booming interest in graphene technologies has led to a high demand on graphene equipment. As shown in the report, CVD equipment makers today mainly focus on the R&D equipment used to produce high-quality graphene.
The leading device manufacturers are currently evaluating the graphene technology potential; most of them have internal R&D activities or are developing R&D partnerships with graphene material suppliers. But today’s graphene supply chain is widely dispersed and makes choosing the right supplier difficult. A large (and growing) number of start-up companies are looking to catch graphene market opportunities in their initial stage. Securing graphene IP is crucial to a strong competitive position. As detailed in the report, strong vertical integration trends within the supply chain are expected, due to specific challenges in production and the handling of graphene materials, namely CVD-made graphene sheets. The manufacturers of graphene nanoplatelets will also vertically integrate to gain a higher product value and better differentiation from competitors by offering application-specific materials, such as conductive inks and composite materials for graphene batteries and supercapacitors.
As pointed out in the report, many different graphene material types and quality levels exist. A higher level of standardization is therefore important in graphene technology, especially for the suppliers of high-quality graphene materials to differentiate better from other suppliers, and for companies with a long-term business strategy. The lack of suitable graphene quality characterization tools provides opportunities for companies developing specialized tools.
GRAPHENE MATERIALS: QUALITY, QUANTITY, REPRODUCIBILITY AND LOW COST NEEDED
The development and industrial production of new graphene applications require a reliable supply of graphene with consistently high quality.
Graphene materials can be produced as tiny flakes (nanoplatelets) or in the form of a large-size sheet on different substrates, such as a metal foil or silicon carbide (SiC).
The catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of graphene on metals, featuring the high potential for both scalability and high material quality, has the largest potential for mass production of graphene opto and electronic devices. Although the market potential of high-quality epitaxial graphene on SiC is limited by the dimensions and high costs of SiC wafers, it may be successfully applied to produce some high-end electronic applications. The nanoplatelets produced by different methods, such as liquid phase epitaxy or reduction of graphene oxide can be used to produce conductive inks for printed electronics and additive materials for energy storage devices, such as Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors.
The choice of the graphene production technique is of crucial importance to a device manufacturer because it influences not only the graphene size, quality and costs, but also the design of the production line for device manufacturing.
As shown in the report, it is possible today to produce large volumes of graphene materials at relatively low costs and also to produce the high-quality graphene. The main challenge is to satisfy both conditions simultaneously…
KEY FEATURES OF THE REPORT
Overview of main opto and electronic applications of graphene materials (printed & flexible circuitry, semi electronic devices, transparent conductive electrodes, energy storage devices, photonic devices)
Detailed analysis of different graphene materials, their characteristics and manufacturing processes
2013-2024 graphene material market forecast (in $M) - Two scenarios
Overview of main R&D players, graphene CVD equipment makers, material suppliers and relationships within the value chain
Focus on the key R&D topics
Company profiles of main players
OBJECTIVES OF THE REPORT
To guide strategic decisions concerning the R&D development and business activities of the technology, especially pertaining to applications with a strong market potential but also numerous challenges.
To provide an overview of opto and electronic applications in which graphene can provide a high proposition value regarding the device performance, novel functionalities or costs.
To identify the most promising graphene materials and their manufacturing processes.
To describe the key drivers for the development of graphene and to understand the specificities of graphene technology and its complexity.
To provide an overview of the main R&D players, equipment makers and materials suppliers.
LIST OF COMPANIES AND R&D INSTITUTIONS (non-exhaustive list)
2D-Tech, AIXTRON, AMO, Angstron Materials, Annealsys, Applied Graphene Materials, Bluestone Global Tech, Cabot, CalBattery, CEA, CrayoNano SA, CVD Equipment, Graphene Laboratories, Graphene Platform, Cambridge Graphene Platform, Graphene Square, Graphene Works, Graphenea, Graphensic, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Haydale, IBM, IEMN, IMEC, Intel, ITME, Chalmers University of Technology, LG, Lomiko Metals, Mason Graphite, Nano Carbon, NanoXplore, National University of Singapore, Nokia, Oerlikon Leybold Vacuum, Plasmionique, Pohang University, Princeton University, Samsung, PNNL, SHT Smart High Tech, Texas Instruments, Thales, Thomas Swan, UC Santa Barbara, UCLA, University of Exeter, University of Manchester, University of Oxford, VG Scienta, Vorbeck Materials, XG Sciences…
Executive summary 8
Noteworthy news 37
Introduction to graphene material 40
Graphene at a glance
Why is graphene so interesting?
(Defect-free) graphene = excellent material!
Barries/challenges to exploitation of graphene
Monolayer vs. multilayer graphene-material
Graphene applications 48
Overview of potential graphene applications
Scope of the report
Printed & flexible circuiry 51
Semiconductor electronic devices 53
Graphene-based electronic devices
Seamless integration of graphene-based interconnects in electronic devices
Grat-FET™ Graphene Field-Effect Transistors from Bluestone Global Tech
Graphene-based flexible electronics
Transparent Conductive Electrodes (TCE) 61
Transparent conducting films
Sheet resistance required for different applications
Potential applications of graphene as transparent conductive electrodes
Samsung’s, LG’s and Nokia’s concepts for flexible devices
TCE process flow at Samsung Techwin
Key requirements on transparent electrode material
Sheet resistance required for different applications
Why a substitution for ITO is researched?
Comparison of different materials used for transparent electrodes
Requirements and available graphene products for flexible transparent conductive electrodes
How to increase the graphene potential for transparent conductive electrode?
Combined graphene-based materials for transparent conductive electrodes
Graphene transparent conductive electrode for e-paper / LEDs / UV LED / solar cells
Graphene-based solar cells
Energy storage devices 80
Graphene-based energy storage devices
Laser scribed graphene supercapacitors at UCLA
Graphene-based Li-ion batteries
Grat-Power™ SiGP Li-ion battery anode material
Photonic devices 86
Graphene applications in photonic devices
Overview of graphene materials
Graphite at a glance
Graphene type does matter
Examples of commercially available graphene materials
CVD graphene domains
Does graphene present a risk for human health or for environment?
Other 2D materials
Thermal management using graphene
Two approaches for graphene-based thermal dissipation
Production of graphene materials 97
High-volume cost-effective high-quality graphene production needed
Production of graphene materials
Graphene production methods, materials produced and their applications
Graphene obtained by different methods
How to get the large-size graphene layers?
Two main approaches to obtain large-size graphene layers
Comparison of the main methods for obtaining graphene films
Quality vs. costs
Graphene materials & applications
Overview of graphene production methods
How to use graphene in different applications?
Graphene transfer from growth substrate to a new substrate suitable for applications
CVD graphene transfer - Wet etching dry transfer
CVD graphene transfer Graphene on foil vs. Graphene on wafer
Face-to-face graphene transfer
Opening graphene bandgap
Graphene doping, patterning, functionalization
Graphene costs 125
Costs of graphene materials
Factors influencing graphene cost
ASP of different graphene materials
Technology improvements and mass production reduce the price of graphene
Main approaches to decrease the graphene costs
Graphene material market forecast 132
Graphene-based devices - Main drivers/challenges
“Standard-grade”and “Electronic-grade” graphene materials vs. production method
Comments about for the graphene material market forecast
Time-to-market for different graphene applications
2013-2024 market value for graphene materials (M$) - Base & accelerated scenarios