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Energy Management for Smart Grid, Cities and Buildings: Opportunities for battery electricity storage solutions

2014-2023-stationary-battery-market-value 9038064
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Icone Stationary battery energy storage solutionsThe growing EV/HEV market and the growing market share of intermittent renewable energies (wind, PV) are currently reshaping the stationary battery market.

How will stationary battery energy storage speed up the energy transition currently underway and will create a $13.5 billion opportunity for storage by 2023?

The recent announcement about Tesla battery storage solution confirms the trends towards massive deployment of distributed stationary storage systems.

Energy storage plays an important role in the energy transition currently underway in all major electricity markets.   Decentralization of electricity sources has become possible because of improving technologies and falling costs for renewable energy installations and energy storage solutions. Decentralization and increased deployment of renewable sources have sustainable drivers: access to clean energy, CO2 emission reduction, nuclear hazard reduction, energy independence, clean mobility, and local energy production to decrease transmission and distribution losses. Traditional business models based on centralized energy supply are becoming obsolete. New energy management solutions and business models have to be developed. As shown in the report, the growing market share of intermittent renewable energies (wind, photovoltaics) in electricity generation reveals a strong interest in stationary battery energy storage systems. Recent cases in China (wind generators curtailment), Japan, and some European countries (grid stability issues due to the large percentage of intermittent renewable electricity) have shown that the further deployment of renewable energy sources in many areas of the world will require electricity grid upgrades, larger deployment of suitable energy storage systems, and development of suitable energy management solutions.

Energy management is key for the development of new technologies for a better world with smart cities, smart buildings, clean energy sources, and clean mobility, etc. Most of these technology solutions are interlinked. An energy storage solution, especially a battery, is at the center of all these technologies and applications. According to Yole Développement’s analysis, the market for stationary battery energy storage systems will have strong growth in the future, surpassing $13.5 billion by 2023. As analyzed in the report, this market is driven both by suppliers' development of better performing and less costly battery solutions and by consumers' growing demand for lower energy dependence, greater availability of renewable electricity, and the need for electricity grid stabilization. Battery solutions are particularly attractive for use in buildings having both solar and electricity storage, especially residential buildings; excess photovoltaic electricity can be stored in batteries, then cheap energy can be drawn from the sun or battery during the day when electricity rates are high, and during the night power can be drawn from the grid at low overnight rates. Excess locally generated electricity can also be sold to the utility.

The combination of renewable energies, batteries, and adapted energy management is sought by customers trying to reduce their electricity bills by increasing self-consumption of locally produced electricity. The most popular choice today is still to maintain the connection to the grid and just lower the amount of electricity purchased. This creates big challenges for grid operators that have the burden of providing reliable grid stability and connection for customers that are consuming less electricity, and thus providing less income to cover grid operation, upgrades, and maintenance. The traditional business models must be completely reshaped and new business models will appear. This will have a great impact on the business of both existing players and newcomers.

2014 2023 stationary battery market value

How will EV/HEV players (Tesla, BYD…) drive the stationary battery energy storage business?

Rechargeable batteries are particularly suitable for distributed energy storage. Although using a battery as an energy storage solution is decades old, new battery technologies are still maturing and their future cost decrease is expected to significantly speed up the development and deployment of existing and new technologies and applications, thus leading to new business opportunities. The growing electric vehicle/hybrid electric vehicle (EV/HEV) market is a game changer driving battery performance improvement and cost decrease. The new Tesla positioning on both EV/HEV and stationary batteries helps it to increase the market volume and to reduce the production costs.

The modular characteristic of battery systems means their size and features can be optimized for very different requirements in a multitude of applications. In particular, their fast demand response capability widens the scope of services (frequency regulation, etc.) that could be provided by batteries, compared to other energy storage technologies. Different battery technologies are commercially available, safe, proven, and used in daily life. The same battery technology can be used in many different applications (stationary/portable/transport) enabling lower production cost because of higher cumulated production volume, common battery technology development, and simpler logistics. Decreasing battery cost allows broader deployment in both existing and new applications. There is still great potential for further cost reduction and performance enhancement of battery systems. As shown in the report, the development and cost decrease of lithium-ion batteries, very suitable for applications in transport, will largely be driven by the growing EV/HEV market. This strong driving force will result in a battery technology consolidation associated with decreasing market share for more mature battery technologies (lead acid, NiMH…). All energy storage technologies currently under development or already being commercially deployed have to face strong competition from Li-ion batteries that have the advantage of high energy density, high power density, high modularity, and decreasing costs.

Benefits of battery storage

Growing opportunities within the energy management value chain are attracting numerous companies across the industry

The value chains associated with the management of energy flow (generation, transmission, distribution, storage and consumption) offer opportunities for numerous players from various industries.

As most batteries are built from small-size battery cells, the battery cell suppliers control battery performance improvement and cost decreases. The Li-ion battery cell supply is today dominated by a few large companies located in Japan, Korea, and China, producing cells in very large quantities. Among the leading suppliers are Samsung SDI, Panasonic, LG Chem, SONY, Lishen, Amperex Technology Ltd. (ATL), and BYD.

Based on safe and reliable cells purchased from the established suppliers, many players are currently entering the market as battery integrators—designing and manufacturing battery systems, especially for applications in transport and stationary energy storage (residential and large-size battery energy storage systems (BESS)). As shown in our report, the residential storage market entry barrier is rather low with strong synergies to other products /applications, thus motivating many players to focus on this market segment. The value chain for residential electricity storage market is still greatly dispersed and composed of many small players—more than 50 players offer commercial solutions and others will release their products soon. Automotive makers (Tesla, BYD, Toyota, Nissan…), their suppliers, and partners are also entering the residential or large-size BESS markets. They profit from the advantage of purchasing battery cells in high quantities and thus at lower prices compared to stationary storage “pure-players”. According to Yole Développement’s analysis, a strong consolidation, new partnerships, and M&A activities will strongly shape the stationary storage market over the next several years.

Energy producers are keen to partner with battery makers and energy solution providers. Many of them are testing different battery solutions or have invested in companies involved in the battery business. Energy suppliers involved in renewable energy generation need to reinforce their position by developing solutions that enable easier integration of renewables into the electricity grid. Energy suppliers continuing to stay with their conventional electricity sources will need to improve their capacity and optimize plant operations. Battery solutions can enable both.

The battery and renewable energy players and EV/HEV makers will increasingly focus on the business related to energy supply and energy management (smart grid, smart city, smart building…). The players providing “an energy solution” will gain a better position in the market compared to players selling just “an electricity storage product”.
The companies that manufacture electronic and power electronic components, safety devices, cooling systems, etc. are also taking part in the growing battery business.

Examples of different players involved

Report objectives
To provide insight to:

  • How the transition toward renewable energy sources and clean electricity and the development of new battery technologies and solutions will impact the electricity business. What risks and opportunities it will bring?
  • Market size for stationary battery energy storage systems
  • Expected movements within the value chain
  • How the electric vehicle drives the development and deployment of the stationary battery electricity storage systems.

Table of contents

Why energy management and focus on batteries?           6
Motivation for this report               7
Who should be interested in this report?   8
Companies cited in this report      9
List of abbreviations              10
Executive summary              11
Market forecast for stationary battery storage             42
•    Geographical specificities of stationary battery electricity storage market
•    Market segmentation used within the report
•    2014-2023 grid-connected stationary battery market in MWh
•    2014-2023 grid-connected stationary battery market value ($ million)
•    How critical is Return-on-Investment for different market segments?
•    Penetration rate of battery electricity storage systems in PV installations
•    2014-2023 grid-connected stationary battery market – key messages
•    How electric vehicle drives the stationary battery electricity storage applications
•    "Tesla effect" on the baterry storage market
•    Most promising countries for stationary battery electricity storage solutions

Energy Storage Systems: Technologies, Applications and Trends    55

•    Classification of energy storage systems
•    Overview of energy storage technologies
•    Energy capacity vs. Power capacity
•    10 reasons why battery is the most promising energy storage technology
•    Advantages of battery storage compared to diesel-generator
•    Battery - key for many applications
•    From a battery cell to a battery container
•    Battery electrical energy storage system – from Watt-hours to mega-Watt-hours
•    Characteristics of main battery technologies
•    Large variety of battery cell technologies and types
•    We have entered a Li-based battery era…
•    Battery Management System  - BMS
•    Safety issues related to batteries
•    Overview of hazards related to battery systems

Value Chain       70

•    Synergies in energy management => numerous business opportunities for different players
•    Recent Investments, Merger & Acquisitions
•    Positioning within the value chain and relationship between different players
•    Expected movements within the value chain
•    Why automotive players should be interested in stationary battery ESS market?
•    Will EV/HEV players kill stationary ESS “pure-players”?
•    Move towards residential electricity storage business
•    Relationships within the value chain
•    Examples of automotive players entering stationary battery electricity storage market
•    Tesla
•    Battery cell suppliers
•    Market shares of leading Li-ion battery suppliers

Electricity Storage and Renewable Electricity Sources   83

•    Overview of renewable energy sources
•    Why renewable energy are sources a part of our future?
•    Electricity vs. thermal energy storage for renewables
•    Why electricity storage does match well with renewables?
•    Battery electricity storage: key element of future energy solutions
•    Which RES has the strongest potential for electricity storage solutions?
•    Photovoltaic technology and applications
•    Three main stationary PV segments
•    2014 – 2023 PV market size (in MW)
•    2014 – 2023 wind market size (in MW)
•    Battery electricity storage and photovoltaics – a strong synergy
•    BESS not indispensable for RES integration - Case of Denmark
•    Battery electricity storage and RES – case studies
•    Variables to monitor within a RES+battery system
•    Benefits of battery storage for renewables
•    Regulatory issues vs. technology solution for better grid flexibility
Battery Electricity Storage Systems for Buildings         102
•    Strong dominancy of AC technology in buildings
•    DC technology RAPIDLY gains in interest… and so the role of battery
•    Smart building and battery solutions
•    Pros and Cons for battery integration in buildings
•    Residential PV inverter and battery storage solutions
•    Examples of residential battery electrical storage systems
•    Battery storage solutions from Tesla
•    Modular systems vs. systems with fixed energy capacity
•    Overview of commercially available residential systems – power vs. energy capacity graph
•    Battery electricity storage and PV on building – a strong synergy
•    Added value of power back-up in the building
•    Benefits of battery storage for building
•    Zero Emission Total Solution from BYD
•    Prefabricated houses with integrated PV & electricity storage solution and their suppliers
•    Battery as an integrated part of building energy management system
•    Vehicle-to-Home (V2H) concept  - Nissan LEAF
•    Vehicle-to-Home (V2H) concept - Toyota Prius
•    EV/HEV as a solution for smart building and smart grid - challenges
•    Community Energy Storage systems

Battery Electricity Storage Solutions for Electricity Grid 122

•    Why battery solutions for a “conventional grid”?
•    Area Energy Management System
•    Battery vs. grid reinforcement and building new generation capacities
•    Load defection or grid defection?
•    New challenges in grid management related to data communication and treatment
•    Alternatives to battery electricity storage systems
•    Large battery storage systems for grid services
•    Case study – BESS
•    BESS as a solution to rapid (and unexpected) electricity demand increase
•    Used batteries from EV vehicle to provide grid stabilization services – case study - BMW
•    Partnership for V2G:  Nissan and Endesa (Enel Group)

EV/HEV and Electricity Storage 135

•    Why EV/HEV technologies and players are important for stationary electricity storage business?
•    Different options to electrify vehicles
•    Why developing electrified vehicles?
•    Electric or plug-in hybrid vehicles: still a smart part of the whole automotive market in 2013
•    A market in expansion from one year to another
•    Electrified vehicles market forecasts worldwide to 2023
•    Different solutions for energy storage in the automotive market
•    Battery evolution is mandatory for EV/PHEV market expansion
•    Battery capacity: different groups of cars
•    Which type of evolution for battery capacity to 2020? Three scenarios
•    Which type of evolution for battery capacity to 2020: Yole’s expectations
•    EV/HEV: a huge market for energy storage - Energy storage capacity to 2023 (in GWh)
•    EV/HEV: Energy storage capacity to 2023 (in M$)
•    What will be the impact of electrified vehicles development on power demand?
•    How to supply so much power to electrified vehicles: smart charging
•    Which player for smart charging?
•    More than smart charging: V2X systems
•    V2G systems use the car as an energy storage system integrated in smart grid

Conclusion                  162



Companies cited

A123 Systems
AESC Alstom
BAE Batterien GmbH
Coda Energy
Duke Energy
Greencharge Networks
GS Yuasa

Hawaiian Electric
Johnson Controls
K Road AG
LG Chem
National Grid
Quantum Scope
Samsung SDI
Solar Frontier
Schneider Electric
Sun Catalytics
Tesla Motors
Tohoku Electric power
Victron Energy
Wanxiang Group



  • Market forecast for stationary battery energy storage systems (ESS) - in MWh, in $ million
  • Overview of the main players for stationary battery ESS
  • Analysis of commercially available residential battery ESS regarding their power and energy capacity
  • Overview of services that could be realized by battery ESS for each analyzed segment (renewable energy sources, building, electricity grid)
  • Analysis of the impact of the EV/EHV market on the stationary battery market
  • Case studies: Tesla, BYD, Nissan…