Secure payment on i-micronews Contact Yole Développement for I Micronews reports

RSS I-micronewsYole Dévelopement on TwitterYole Développement on Google +LinkedIn Yole pageSlideshare Yole Développement I-Micronews

Quantum Dots and Wide Color Gamut Display Technologies

6 490 €

Choose a minimum of three reports from Yole Group and receive a discount of at least 36% on your package – Contact us!



Yole quantum dots couv flyer

A comprehensive market and technology report on Quantum Dots and competing technologies for next generation ultra-high definition displays.


As TV makers struggle to trigger replacement cycles, Wide Color Gamut (WCG) and High Dynamic Range (HDR) and their notable picture quality improvements are the next growth drivers for the industry. Various technologies are competing to deliver those features. In the short and mid-term, the best-positioned ones are OLED and the well-established, dominant, LCD technology supercharged with narrow-band phosphor LEDs or quantum dot (QD) color converters in the backlight unit.

Quantum Dots enable drastic enhancements of display color gamut. They do so with high efficiency, giving display makers headroom to increase brightness, contrast and gamut without increasing power consumption.

Their most common implementation is as color conversion films located in the LCD backlight unit. QDs in this form are drop-in solutions that can be easily deployed on all sizes of displays without any process change or capital expenditure (CapEx) required by display makers. QDs therefore enable the LCD industry to boost the performance of its products without major investment. This contrasts with OLEDs, which require building multibillion-dollar dedicated fabs.

However QDs don’t solve some LCD shortcomings. They still lag in terms of response times, black levels, viewing angles. Also, LCDs can’t deliver pixel-level dimming, the strongest selling point for OLED displays. In the future, QDs could substitute for LCD color filters. Unlike films, this configuration requires some process changes in LCD manufacturing. However it would double their efficiency, further improve color gamut and provide viewing angles similar to OLED. In the longer term, Electroluminescent QDs (EL-QD) could deliver OLED-like characteristics and performance, with improved brightness and stability.

Yole Wide Color Gamut Technology Segmentation1 


LG Display is currently the only OLED TV panel manufacturer. The company announced that it will stop investing in LCD and build two new OLED TV manufacturing lines in Korea and China, slated to start production in late 2019. Cost and technology barriers to entry are high, and few other companies will be able to manufacture OLED TV panels in that timeframe. Unless OLED printing technologies progress fast enough to enable cost efficient manufacturing of large, full RGB displays, OLED TV adoption will therefore remain capacity-constrained to less than 12 million units per year until 2022.

QDs will take advantage of this window of opportunity to capture the lion’s share of the WCG TV market. Rapidly improving performance and decreasing cost enables adoption to spread into mid-range, sub-$1000 models. Display makers will use QDs to keep extracting more value from existing LCD manufacturing. For the long term however, many are hedging their bets and looking at both RGB printed OLED and EL-QDs. In the mid-term, QD Color Filter (QDCF) configurations represent an attractive opportunity to close the gap with OLED in term of viewing angles and widen it in term of gamut and efficiency. QDCF however requires some LCD manufacturing process changes. Although moderate compared to a new OLED fab, not every LCD maker will want to commit the required CapEx or even develop the technology.

Narrowband phosphors deliver performance close to QDs at much lower cost. The performance gap, however, is widening as QDs keep improving and the cost gap decreases. Phosphors will therefore lose market share in the premium segments, but overall volumes will grow significantly thanks to increasing penetration in mid-range products. We also expect narrowband phosphors to be the dominant solution for smaller WCG LCD displays.

In the longer term, both OLED and QD-enhanced LCD could face competition from new, disruptive technologies such as electroluminescent QDs or even microLEDs, which could drive a potential paradigm shift in self-emissive display technology. Other technological innovations could also disrupt the QD market. For example commercialization of a narrow-band green phosphor could eliminate the performance gap between phosphors and QD films and enable a more cost-effective solution.


Yole Adoption rates of Wide Color Gamut Tv Panel Size 


In 2017, demand for QDs is dominated by Samsung. After the demise of pioneer QD-Vision, whose intellectual property was acquired by Samsung in 2016, Nanosys and Hansol are the only QD manufacturers supplying high volumes in 2017. This could change rapidly however as many more TV makers adopt QDs.

Nanoco and its new film partner Wah Hong seem closer than ever to scoring a design win. Quantum Materials in the US and NS Materials in Japan are other credible outsiders. In the fast-growing Chinese display industry, local QD maker Najing Tech is partnering with key manufacturers, accelerating the development of QD films and EL-QD and preparing to ramp up manufacturing.

Many more companies are investing at various levels of the supply chain to get their share of the material, film or barrier opportunities. 2016 saw a major IP battle between Nanosys and QD Vision. As new companies attempt to get their share of the pie, we expect established leaders to become increasingly aggressive in leveraging IP to block new entrants.

On the environmental front, cadmium (Cd)-free QDs dominate the market. Combined with the upcoming availability of fully RoHS compliant solutions such as Nanosys’ Hyperion or possibly hybrid green QD/narrowband red phosphors (PSF), this has prompted the European Commission not to renew a Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive exemption that temporarily allowed higher cadmium content. Cd-free solutions will therefore keep dominating the market, but will coexist with Cd-based yet RoHS compliant solutions. Most manufacturers, however, will stay away from any Cd-containing compositions.

Yole Levels of RoHS compliance

Objectives of the Report

Wide Color Gamut (WCG) and High Dynamic Range (HDR):

  • What is driving adoption?
  • Which technologies?
  • Who’s winning the OLED vs LCD battle?
  • Panel unit forecast for each WCG technology

Quantum Dot Technologies:

  • Different types of QDs, manufacturing technologies
  • QD implementations: backlight color converter, filter, electroluminescent
  • Impact of environmental regulations
  • Forecast: unit shipments by display size, application, types of QDs, film and filter designs

Competitive landscape and supply chain:

  • Identify key players in technology development and manufacturing


Table of contents

Executive summary            11


Glossary and display fundamentals 67 

> Display resolutions, substrate sizes
> Fundamental of LCDs



An introduction to Quantum Dots 72

> Composition and sizes for display application
> Benefits and challenges
> Protection
> Electro vs. photoluminescence



Quantum Rods  80

> Structure
> Polarization and light extraction
> Absorption and quenching
> Quantum Dots vs Quantum Rods



Nano platelets 89 


Quantum Dots manufacturing 92 

> Hot injection
> Capability
> Molecular seeding
> Graded alloys
> Continuous processes
> Current processes at leading producers



The quest for improved display visual experience 100

> Chip singulation
> Bonding and etching: Apple-Luxvue
> Anchor and breakable tethers: X-Celeprint
> Chip manufacturing
> Impact on supply chain



High Dynamic Range 114 

> Overview
> Viewer preferences
> UHD alliance requirements



Color Gamut 120

> Definition
> The Major Color Gamut standards
> UHD alliance requirements
> How to Achieve BT.2020?



Color Volumes 129

> Why does it matter?
> Tone mapping signal delivery
> Conclusion



Benefits of Quantum Dots 136

> Structure of an LCD Display
> Quantum Dots: benefits and challenges



Other technologies for Wide Color Gamut 142

> Structure of an LCD Display
> Quantum Dots: benefits and challenges



Filters 143

> Narrow/thicker color filters
> Samsung: CGEF
> LG: nano cell



Narrowband phosphors 152 

> Nitride and oxynitrides
> PFS and KSF
> PFS: Status and limitations
> The quest for a narrow-band green phosphor
> Summary



Perovskites 164 

> Overview
> Status
> Conclusion



Hybrid solutions 169 


MicroLEDs 171  

> MicroLED definition and history
> MicroLED displays technology evolution
> What is a MicroLED display?
> MicroLED display assembly



Others 177

> Quantum wells
> Narrowband RGB LEDs



Quantum Dots implementations in displays 180


Generation 1: QDs in backlight units 182

> Local dimming schemes
> Edge configurations
> Film configurations
> Statusedge vs film
> QD film structure and requirements
> Barrier requirement evolution
> Major barrier suppliers
> On-Chip conversion



Generation 2: QDs as color filters (QDCF) 196 

> Color filters in traditional displays
> Challenges
> In-cell polarizers
> Subtractive vs additive processes
> Adoption drivers and stoppers
> Comparative performance: LCD, OLED, QD films and QDCF
> Adoption drivers and stoppers
> Status


Generation 3: Electroluminescent QDs 209 

> Leading EL-QD developers
> Characteristics
> Status: QLED efficiency and lifetime
> Manufacturing: transfer printing and inkjet printing
> Key OEM players
> Potential benefits of EL-QD vs. OLED
> Summary



Quantum Dots vs. OLED TVs: The battle royale 228 

> OLED displays structures: True RGB & WOLED
> OLED and QD display comparison
> Color volume
> Black Level and contrast
> Impact of viewing conditions
> Pixel level dimming
> MicroLED backlight
> 2017 model verdict
> Future improvements
> Price
> OLED capacity
> Small displays
> Conclusion
> QD and OLED displays SWOT analysis



Wide Color Gamut TV technology forecast 247 

> 2017-2022 TV panel volume forecast and size breakdown
> Panel cuts on G8 and G10 substrates
> Evolution ff average panel size
> 2017-2022 Wide Color Gamut adoption by panel size
> 2017-2022 Wide Color Gamut technology breakdown
> Technology roadmaps
> Possible disruptions to our scenario



Narrow band phosphors 256 

> 2017-2022 narrowband phosphor TV forecast



OLED 258 

> 2017-2022 OLED TV manufacturing capacity:
> Impact of display size product mix on LG > OLED TV capacity
> Manufacturing cost considerations
> 2017-2022 OLED TV volume forecast


QD Films 265

> 2017-2022 ASP cost breakdown and forecast
> 2017-2022 QD film TV volume forecast
> On-Chip QDs



QDCF   273 

> Manufacturing considerations
> Cost aspects
> 2017-2022 volume forecast for QD color filter TV



Other WCG Technologies 278

> Absorption filters
> MicroLEDs
> EL-Quantum Dots
> 2017-2022 TV volume forecast for other WCG technologies



Hybrid Phosphor/QD 279 

> 2017-2022 volume forecast for hybrid QD/Phosphor TV



Quantum Dot for displays volume and revenue forecast 283 


TV 284 

> 2017-2022 WCG TV panel unit and surface forecast
> 2017-2022 QD adoption by panel size
> 2017-2022 WCG TV panel surface breakdown by technology
> ASP trends and hypothesis
> 2017-2022 QD film revenue forecast
> 2017-2022 QD material revenue forecast



Monitors 291

> Monitor market: 2017-2022 units and panel surface
> Adoption drivers for QDs
> 2017-2022 QD films and material revenue for monitors



Others: laptops, tablets, mobile phones 297

> OLED and QDs
> 2017-2022 QD Adoption forecast
> 2017-2022 QD Films and material revenue
> Smartphones: Overview and OLED capacity evolution
> 2017-2022 Smartphone display technology forecast


Cadmium-based and Cadmium free QDs 305

> Environmental regulations: RoHS
> Alternatives to cadmium
> Performance comparisons
> RoHS compliant solutions
> RoHS for QD filters and EL-QDs
> 2017-2022 QD type panel surface breakdown
> 2017-2022 QD type revenue breakdown



Competitive landscape and supply chain 320   

> Overview
> Tier-1 players
> Focus on Samsung supply chain
> Nanosys company overview and ecosystem
> Nanoco company overview and ecosystem
> Tier-2 players
> Quantum materials corp
> Focus on china
> Najing technology corporation
> China quantum dot ecosystem
> Tier-3 players
> Supply and demand aspects
> Transfer of value with the different designs


Annex  OLED display structure and key technologies 345


Company presentation        352


Companies cited

AU Optronics 
CEC Panda
Chunghwa Picture Tubes 
Dai Nippon Printing
Eco Flux 
Hansol Chemical 
Hitachi Chemical 
Japan display 
LG Chem 
LG Display 
LG Electronics 

Mitsubishi Chemical 
Mitsui Tocello 
Najing Tech 
Nitto Denko 
NS Materials
Pacific Light Technologies 
Poly Optoelectronics 
QD Vision
Qlight Nanotech 
Quantum Materials 
Quantum Technology Group
Sakai Display 
SKC Haas 
Taiwan Nanocrystals 
Toyoda Gosei
Ubi QD 
Unity Opto 
University of Florida 
VP dynamics 
Wah Hong
Zhonghuan Quantum 
And more...


















  • Drivers for Wide Color Gamut (WCG) and High Dynamic Range (HDR)
  • QD technologies and manufacturing
  • WCG technology analysis and volume forecasts including QD, phosphors, hybrid, OLED, µLED and filters
  • QD implementations, including on-chip, edge, films, color filters, electroluminescent
  • Drivers and challenges for adoption and environmental aspects
  • OLED vs QDs: performance, cost and capacity
  • Competitive landscape: key QD, film and barrier and OEM players in the supply chain
  • QD forecast: film and material revenue, broken down by application, architecture, and whether the QDs contain cadmium or not.