Lithography & bonding: Canon is leveraging front-end capabilities to build a dedicated strategy to address More than Moore market segments – Interview by Yole Développement

Megatrend markets are pushing More than Moore (MtM) devices to new levels of complexity, resulting in big investments. In fact, the total equipment market for permanent bonding, lithography, and temporary bonding & debonding processes generated revenue of more than >$450M in 2017. This number is expected to reach >$850M by 2023, with a 10% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) over this period.

Yole Développement (Yole) just released a syndicated report, Bonding and Lithography Equipment for More than Moore DevicesAmandine Pizzagalli, Yole Technology and Market Analyst specialized in semiconductor manufacturing fields, is the author of this report. She recently had an opportunity to meet with Doug Shelton, Marketing Manager at Canon, to learn about his vision for bonding and lithography applications. Canon has supported Yole in the development of this report.
For decades, Canon has offered lithography equipment for the front-end area. And as a key lithography equipment vendor, Canon leads the refurbished equipment market for power and CIS devices. In order to capture additional market share in MtM devices, Canon has developed a strategy aimed at improving its product portfolio with brand-new MtM tools, available at a lower cost than its front-end lithography tools. Moreover, Canon is attempting to leverage their PVD deposition capabilities in the bonding business to launch a permanent bonding tool based on a metal interface.
We invite you to partake in an informative conversation between these two experts: Doug Shelton from Canon and Amandine Pizzagalli at Yole.


Amandine Pizzagalli (AP): Can you introduce shortly Canon, its history and current activity?

Doug Shelton (DS): Canon was originally founded in 1937 as the Precision Optical Industry, Co., Ltd, and was renamed the Canon Camera Co. Inc. in 1947 and finally Canon Inc. in 1969. The original Canon products were 35 mm cameras that were built upon Canon precision optical technology employed in the camera lens designs and manufacturing. Canon has now grown to include 376 subsidiary companies with over 197,000 employees worldwide.
Product portfolio
In the 1980’s Canon products diversified into the printer market and today, Canon products are segmented into several business units including Office Products, Imaging Systems, Medical Systems, and Industry & Others.
Applications addressed
Canon products support personal, professional, cinema and broadcast imaging, print and display media production, medical diagnostics and treatment as well as semiconductor, display and industrial manufacturing and automation products.
Total revenue of the company and which market(s) mainly drive(s) Canon’s revenue today
The total revenue for Canon Inc. in 2017 was greater than 4 Trillion Yen (> $36B) and the majority of Canon sales revenue is from the large, mature, Office and Imaging System markets. Industrial and Medical system markets are enjoying higher growth rates and are becoming higher priority segments for Canon.

Segment Information by Business Unit BU Canon(Source:


AP: Historically, Canon provides lithography equipment for front-end applications. Canon has developed a broader product portfolio dedicated to the More than Moore devices (MTM). Can you describe Canon’s involvement in lithography and bonding market for More than Moore devices?

DS: Canon developed our 1st stepper in 1984 and we continuously leverage Canon proprietary technology to update and improve our lithography platforms. Canon has developed new lithography equipment and functions More than Moore applications including transparent wafer, multi-wafer size and warped wafer handling and infrared backside alignment.

Canon entered the Advanced Packaging lithography market in 2011 with the introduction of our first back-end stepper, the FPA-5510iV. FPA-5510iV i-line steppers offered productivity advantages and were adopted widely for flip-chip packaging operations.

In 2016, Canon launched the new FPA-5520iV stepper that was designed to meet the requirements of aggressive Fan-Out Wafer Level Packaging (FOWLP) processes and FPA-5520iV steppers are currently used in FOWLP mass production and next generation fine-RDL and FOWLP R&D.

Recently, Canon has also developed new Atomic Diffusion Bonding equipment that integrates Canon ANELVA, a Canon Inc. subsidiary, thin film deposition and ultra-high-vacuum technologies into a system that enables permanent bonding of any mirror polished surfaces at room temperature and low-pressure. This is a very versatile technology that can bond almost any two dissimilar materials.


AP: Can you describe Canon’s product portfolio in lithography and bonding for MTM? And could you tell us what type of process steps and market segment/applications do you support with:

DS: Canon has developed a wide range of lithography systems that are optimized to meet specific More than Moore process requirements with the main market being Advanced Packaging applications. Canon is currently providing our 2nd generation Advanced Packaging stepper, the FPA-5520iV with the goal of enabling sub-2 µm resolution imaging for FOWLP, interposer and fine-RDL applications.

For CMOS Image Sensor applications, Canon has developed the wide-field FPA 5510iX i-line stepper offering 500 nm resolution as well as the FPA-6300ESW KrF scanner that provides 130 nm resolution across a 33 x 42.2 mm field to enable exposure of an entire 35 mm image sensor without stitching.

IoT , RF, MEMS, and Power device processes typically utilize smaller substrates with special requirements and to meet these needs, Canon has developed the FPA-3030i5+ i-line stepper and FPA-3030EX6 KrF stepper for ≤ 200 mm wafer processing. The FPA-3030 platform is an upgrade to the Canon’s proven FPA-3000 platform of steppers and is designed with updated hardware and software allowing compatibility with new functions required for More than Moore applications.

To support wafer bonding applications, Canon ANELVA has developed new BC7000 Atomic Diffusion Bonding equipment that leverages their thin film technology expertise to provide highly reliable, permanent wafer-to-wafer bonding for Advanced Packaging, MEMS and many other More than Moore markets. Atomic Diffusion Bonding is a room temperature process that provides high bonding strength, excellent reliability, and high endurance due to the metal-to-metal bonding interface. The room temperature bonding capability makes this technique very attractive for several applications, especially those where thermal budget is a concern.


AP: What is your lithography equipment product portfolio?

DS: Canon has a strong product lineup for FEOL process including FPA-6300ES6a DUV scanners and FPA-5550iZ2 i-line steppers that are widely used by memory manufacturers seeking high productivity and low Cost of Ownership.

Our latest lithography system is the FPA-1200NZ2C which is an innovative tool utilizing Nanoimprint lithography technology to provide ultra-fine patterning and low overall process costs.

Canon has also developed systems designed specifically for More than Moore applications including the FPA-3030EX6 and FPA-3030i5+ steppers for 4”, 6” and 8” wafer processes, the FPA-5510iX i-line stepper and FPA-6300ESW wide-field DUV scanner for high-end image sensor fabrication, and the FPA-5520iV stepper for Advanced Packaging applications.

Canon Portfolio 9 28 18

(Source: Canon)


AP: Can you describe your W2W bonding equipment product portfolio?

DS: Canon provides a new Wafer-To-Wafer permanent bonding system that utilizes Canon ANELVA’s physical vapor deposition and ultra-high-vacuum technologies. This permanent bonding process involves creating ultra-thin, highly uniform layers of metal on the wafer surfaces in an ultra-high-vacuum chamber, followed by room temperature low pressure bonding of those two wafers. Owing to high self-diffusivity of metals, the atoms in thin films on the wafer surfaces diffuse into each other and rearrange at the atomic level to create a strong, permanent Wafer-to-Wafer bond.

Canon ANELVA BC7000 Atomic Diffusion Bonding equipment is fully automated, performing in-situ wafer transfer, film deposition, wafer alignment, bonding and bonded wafer collection operations.

Mirror polished wafers of any materials can be bonded at room temperature, which is suitable for applications requiring low thermal budget, such as bonding of wafers having different thermal expansion coefficients. Interface metals can also be selected and deposited film thickness optimized to provide low-pressure, wafer-to-wafer bonding of dissimilar materials.


BC7000 Atomic Diffusion Bonding System 11 5 18

 (Canon BC7000 Atomic Diffusion Bonding System – Source: Canon)


AP: What is the added value of your equipment? What are the competitive advantages of your products for semiconductor?

DS: One key advantage is Canon’s wide-ranging product portfolio between front-end markets and back-end markets. Thanks to this segment-mix, Canon has a robust worldwide service network that allows us to deliver quick and high quality support to our back-end customers.

Another advantage is Canon’s know how and technology cultivated through front-end technology development. New Canon back-end products leverage proven and proprietary optics manufacturing technology developed from earlier platforms to continuously improve the performance of our lithography systems.
Canon employs this know-how to our designs and manufacturing to provide stable imaging performance, high reliability, high productivity and ultimately low Cost-of-Ownership for challenging More than Moore applications.
One additional advantage Canon enjoys is our company’s financial strength and engineering organization that enable Canon to engage with a wide range of semiconductor markets. Canon has the expertise and resources to continuously upgrade and develop new functions for our lithography systems to meet the specific requirements of each market.


AP: What do you see as the next applications driving Lithography equipment market and permanent bonding market?

DS: We see autonomous driving as an application powering future requirements as autonomous driving technology requires an array of advanced GPUs, FPGAs, and sensors. Advanced GPUs and FPGAs require high bandwidth connections with multiple memory chips and we believe sub-2 µm imaging for high-density Advanced Packaging and Heterogeneous Integration processes are necessary to maximize the benefits of advanced GPU and FPGA designs. These applications present unique challenges and require lithography systems to deliver precision imaging and overlay across a large field and to enable high yield processes.

Innovations in applications such as heterogeneous integration, III-V semiconductors, high power devices, MEMS, and sensors, are promoting the use of wafer bonding technologies to design and manufacture devices with new &/or better capabilities. Canon ANELVA’s new Wafer-to-Wafer bonding technology complements these applications because wafer bonding occurs at room temperature and under low pressure. There is no need to treat the wafer surfaces with plasma or ion beam that can damage those surfaces.



AP: How do you foresee the evolution of the lithography equipment market industrial landscape for More than Moore devices in the coming years?

DS: The first direction is finer resolution in RDL layers. More Moore scaling is still evolving and will continue to support the realization of more powerful chips, but these chips require much higher I/O counts to integrate efficiently with peripheral chips such as memory stacks. Canon will continue to support More Moore approaches with our Nanoimprint Lithography Technology, while also continuing to provide precision imaging for high-resolution Advanced Packaging and FOWLP processes.

Another important change will be a demand for higher equipment stability and reliability in back-end process. Chips employing Advanced Packaging technology are typically expensive which justifies investments to improve reliability and back-end process yield which has a large impact on overall system cost. Canon Advanced Packaging Lithography Systems are based on front-end litho platforms and provide access to advanced features including our online monitoring system that allows for quick troubleshooting and response to improve system reliability.


AP: Which application or process step do you see a high interest for further lithography equipment needs and investment? What are the main More than Moore applications and process steps that will drive the next growth of lithography equipment market?

DS: We believe that advanced FOWLP applications with fine RDL will drive new lithography equipment requirements in the near future. Although high-resolution silicon interposer technology can be fabricated using front-end lithography equipment, FOWLP requires a lower NA optical system to provide a wide Depth-of-Focus (DoF) to compensate for wafer topography.

Traditional BEOL lithography tools struggle to resolve very fine patterning due to their extremely low NA and leveling systems that can’t reliably position wafers within the small DoF range during exposure.

To meet these requirements, Canon has developed a new NA0.24 projection lens option for the FPA-5520iV stepper that is optimized to balance resolution and DoF for sub-1.0 µm RDL processes.


AP: What are the key reasons of using brand new equipment instead of a refurbished tool?

DS: Advanced Packaging processes require new-concept tools that are different from both front-end lithography tools and ordinary back-end lithography tools. New tools also integrate the latest hardware and software to provide improved performance, and increased productivity, stability and uptime. New tools also offer long-term parts visibility and are designed to be forward compatible with next-generation functions.


AP: Are there any special/specific technical specifications required for More than Moore or different needs required compared to frond-end area? Is it possible to provide further information about technical characteristics of these key products?

DS: Canon has developed new Projection Optics with a 0.24 NA that are capable of providing a large depth-of-focus for 0.8 µm RDL processes. Canon has leveraged our strong connection with resist and equipment vendors to test and qualify the FPA-5520iV imaging performance and has demonstrated high-fidelity 0.8 µm RDL patterning.

When compared to FEOL lithography processes, More than Moore applications also utilize thicker resist layers requiring a higher dose and therefore FPA-5520iV steppers features a Resist Outgassing Unit that effectively eliminates lens contamination due to thick-resist exposure.


AP: Are there any specific functions added on More than Moore lithography equipment compared to a front-end dedicated tool?

DS: One of Canon’s strengths is that we can develop customized solutions to overcome customer challenges. For instance, More than Moore applications often generate distorted and warped substrates and to enable these processes Canon developed warped wafer handling capabilities as well as wafer planarization using an advanced wafer chucking system for the FPA-5520iV steppers.

FPA-5520iV steppers can also employ a die-by-die overlay compensation strategy to correct for random die shift error in FOWLP processes.

FPA-5520iV systems may also be configured with an optional Through Silicon Alignment (TSA) System that allows the stepper to use infrared light to observe alignment targets located on the backside of a silicon wafer to enable via-last processes.

 FPA 5520iV 1 canon(Canon FPA-5520iV i-line Stepper – Source: Canon)


AP: Is there a technology point where scanner or stepper technology could be used instead of alternative solution for some More than Moore applications? Examples?

DS: More than Moore applications already require high-performance lithography systems and to meet this demand, Canon has developed 200 mm handling options for the FPA-6300ES6a, our 90 nm resolution KrF scanner and the FPA-5550iZ2 which is Canon’s highest productivity i-line stepper.

Canon has also developed the FPA-6300ESW KrF lithography system that is based on FEOL DUV scanner technology. The FPA-6300ESW is suitable for high-end CMOS Image Sensor applications and the large field, high-resolution capability can be extended to Advanced Packaging applications as well.


AP: As one of the leading semiconductor equipment suppliers, can you explain how Canon is positioned in the More than Moore area?

DS: Canon’s strong technology portfolio can enable innovation for our customers and Canon is committed to continuously adapting existing and developing new systems and functions to meet new process demands.


AP: How do you see the future of your lithography equipment in the same field? How will Canon compete against the leaders?

DS: We believe that Canon is in a strong and unique position as we have a wide understanding of all lithography markets and the core lithography expertise and resources required to drive innovation in marketing, design, manufacturing, and support. Canon advantages include having wide variety of functions and systems to meet each customer’s unique process, productivity and cost requirements.
Lithography system demand for all FEOL and More than Moore applications is very strong and Canon will continue to invest and develop new equipment to meet market demands.


AP: What will be for you the major evolutions of the lithography and bonding business in the coming years?

DS: We shipped our first stepper equipped with NA0.24 projection optics this year and we believe that sub-1.0 µm Advanced Packaging options will become commercially available in 2019. Canon will support this evolution by studying and developing processes with resist vendors and other equipment suppliers.


AP: What are the next steps of Canon growth in the Lithography and bonding area?

DS: Canon has been studying how to best support high-resolution panel-based processes including Fan-Out Panel Level Packaging (FOPLP). Canon will monitor the evolving FOPLP requirements and challenges and will make efforts to make high-resolution, high-yield FOPLP processes a reality.

 Panel sub 1 micron 11 6 18
(Canon has demonstrated 0.8 micron resolution on 300 mm panels – Source: Canon)




Wafer Size

300 mm

Reticle Size

6 inch




≤ 1.5 µm (≤ 0.8 µm option)

Lens NA

0.15 – 0.18 (~ 0.24 option)

Field Size

52.0 mm x 34.0 mm

Distortion (3σ)

≤ 150 nm

(m + 3


≤ 150 nm


≤ 500 nm (w/ TSA option)

300 mm, 42 shot, 1,000 J/m2

≥ 160 wph
(w/ High T-Put option)




Canon Shelton 10 24 18Doug Shelton is Marketing Manager for the Industrial Products Division of Canon USA and his team provides Canon Lithography, Deposition and Optomechatronic Products to customers throughout North and South America.
Doug currently works out of San Jose, California and over his 20 year Canon career he has held positions in sales, marketing, engineering, and training development including a 2 year assignment in at the Canon Optical Products Factory in Utsunomiya, Japan.
Doug received B.S. & M.S. degrees in Engineering, and an M.B.A. from San Jose State University and he is a loyal member of S.P.I.E, IMAPS & IEEE.


Photo AmandinePizzagalli YOLE 2018

Amandine Pizzagalli is a Technology & Market Analyst, Equipment & Materials – Semiconductor Manufacturing, at Yole Développement (Yole). Amandine is part of the development of the Semiconductor & Software division of Yole with the production of reports and custom consulting projects. She is in charge of comprehensive analyses focused on semiconductor equipment, materials and manufacturing processes.
Previously, Amandine worked as Process engineer on CVD and ALD processes for semiconductor applications at Air Liquide. Amandine was based in Japan during one year to manage these projects.
Amandine graduated from CPE Lyon (France), with a technical expertise in Semiconductor & Nano-Electronics and holds an electronics engineering degree followed by a master’s in semiconductor manfuacturing technology from KTH Royal institute of technology (swenden).
She has spoken in numerous international conferences and has authored or co-authored more than 10 papers.



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Bonding and Lithography Equipment Market for More than Moore Devices

More than Moore devices fueled by megatrend applications will strongly drive the growth of the lithography, permanent bonding, and temporary bonding and debonding equipment market. – Get more here






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