A feasible way towards safer, better-performing batteries?
KEY FEATURES OF THE REPORT
- 2018 – 2025 market forecast in MWh for solid-state lithium-ion batteries, along with applications roadmap
- Overview of solid-state battery’s main applications, Li-ion battery’s current positioning, and solid-state battery’s value proposition
- Analysis of solid-state battery’s main advantages, as well as the remaining key challenges for solidstate battery commercialization
- Proposal of different approaches for solid-state battery’s’ commercial introduction
- Solid-state battery supply chain analysis
OBJECTIVES OF THE REPORT
This report’s objectives are to:
- Offer deep insight into the key drivers and value proposition of solid-state battery technologies, compared to conventional Li-ion batteries
- Provide an analysis of the remaining challenges to bringing solid-state battery to commercialization
- Present the main applications and different approaches for solid-state battery commercialization
- Furnish a market forecast for solid-state battery
- Deliver an overview of different solid-state electrolyte materials and manufacturing methods for solid-state battery cells
- Identify the solid-state battery supply chain’s main trends. Provide a detailed analysis of the supply chain, including main R&D and industrial players, partnerships, and business approaches.
Tables of contents
Report objectives 6
Companies cited in this report 7
List of abbreviations 8
Executive summary 9
Noteworthy news 35
- Three main axes of innovation in batteries
- Two ways for battery cell development to meet market expectations
Solid-state battery 42
- Solid-state battery, in a nutshell
- Solid-state microbattery vs. bulk solid-state battery
Why solid-state battery? 48
- Solid-state battery as a the next-generation of Li-ion batteries
- Solid-state battery – main drivers
What does solid-state battery compete with? – conventional Li-ion battery 51
- Li-ion technologies and applications
- Different LI-ion battery cells – comparative table
- Comparative graph of energy density for different Li-ion battery cells
- Where are Li-ion battery’s limitations/weak points?
- Safety issues related to Li-ion batteries -thermal runaway
- How can advanced batteries compete with lithium-ion technologies?
- Solid-state battery – main advantages and drawbacks
Applications and market forecast for solid-state batteries 73
– Early adopters of solid-state batterie
- – Solid-state battery attributes vs. application requirements
- Space applications
- Aerospace applications – main drivers
- Consumer electronics
- Yole’s solid-state battery application roadmap
- 2018 – 2025 solid-state battery forecast
- Solid-state battery demand in 2025, split per application
- Yole’s forecast – hypothesis
- How to make solid-state battery market-ready?
- Why is solid-state battery development accelerating?
- Commercialization approaches for solid-state battery in the
- EV/HEV market
Main solid-state battery challenges 114
Solid-state battery electrolyte materials 131
Manufacturing techniques 142
Solid-state battery – development 155
Solid-state battery – supply chain, partnerships, and business approaches 163
- Main R&D players
- Main industrial players
- Solid-state battery – ranking of main patent assignees
- Solid-state battery IP dynamics – graph of patent assignees per year
- Solid-state battery – supply chain dynamics
- Solid-state battery – recent investments
- Solid-state battery – mergers & acquisitions, exits
- Why are players from across the battery supply chain interested in solid-state battery?
Appendix – company profiles (20 companies and R&D institutions) 194
SOLID-STATE BATTERY – DRIVERS AND APPLICATIONS
Conventional Li-ion battery technologies, based on flammable liquid electrolytes, are continuously improving. However, faster progress towards greater safety, higher performance, and better cost reduction is desired. A next-generation battery technology like solid-state battery, which uses solid electrodes and solid electrolytes, could potentially satisfy these objectives.
The main drivers for solid-state battery development are safety (especially in space, aerospace, and automotive applications, as well as some consumer applications), added-value differentiation (especially for EV/HEV), and the increasing difficulties faced by conventional Liion cell technology in further increasing battery energy density without compromising safety. Solid-state battery’s commercialization and market growth will depend on its added-value differentiation gap compared to conventional Liion batteries, which differs for each application analyzed in this report: EV/HEV, space, aerospace, and consumer electronics.
WHY IS SOLID-STATE BATTERY DEVELOPMENT ACCELERATING?
Solid-state battery is not a new technology – in fact, the first research activities date to the late 1950s. Solid-state battery technology has found applications in the form of microbatteries as a micro-power source for sensors, etc. (not analyzed in this report). Unfortunately, the materials and manufacturing methods used for microbattery’s fabrication are extremely difficult to translate into bulk-size battery manufacture on a cost-effective basis.
Today, there is no commercially-available bulk solid-state battery (not including the polymerbased solid-state batteries from Bolloré Group, which must be heated to 60 – 80°C). Over the last several years, numerous different players have made announcements regarding the readiness of prototype cells and expected commercialization starts, only to see these ultimately be cancelled or postponed. And despite decades of development, many technology challenges remain unsolved, as shown in this report. So why do we see such a strong, growing interest in solid-state battery development and commercialization? What are the key drivers here?
According to Yole Développement’s analysis, the main cause of this momentum is the strong application-pull of game-changing battery industry players: the EV/ HEV makers. Established automotive players (Toyota, Volkswagen BMW, etc.) and newcomers (i.e. Dyson, Fisker) plan to commercialize EV/ HEV with a battery that will be safer, lighter, and longer-running than conventional Li-ion battery. A growing number of players involved in solidstate battery development is another reason for increased momentum, as are a variety of newlyestablished solid-state battery consortiums.
Numerous industry players (23 companies in the Japanese Libtec consortium alone!) and R&D players from different areas are combining their efforts, each bringing a piece of technology knowhow. Indeed, sharing know-how from four main technology areas is crucial for bringing solid-state battery to commercialization. Also, large coverage of multiple topics by different players is important for solid-state battery, enabling accelerated evaluation of different technology approaches and concentration on the most promising ones.
WHO MAKES WHAT IN SOLID-STATE BATTERY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT?
Regarding solid-state battery technology development, there are many technology bricks involved, including electrolyte material screening, ionic conductivity enhancement, electrolyte/electrode interface stability, lithium metal anode, separator coating, cell and pack manufacturing methods, battery management system (BMS), and battery pack design.
According to Yole Développement’s analysis, there are more than 100 companies and R&D players involved in solidstate battery development (Fig.3). For an emerging technology, it might be surprising to see that only 14 of 68 industrial companies identified are startup companies (Ionic Materials, NEI Corporation, QuantumScape, etc.). These start-ups are positioned mainly in electrolyte material screening and development. R&D activities are rapidly developing within big companies, 54 of which have been identified by Yole Développement. The main big companies are car makers: Toyota, BMW, Volkswagen, Renault- Nissan-Mitsubishi Alliance, and Hyundai. Toyota, with a strong solid-state development history and 200+ engineers working on solid-state battery technology, is considered a leader here.
Strong participation from EV/HEV makers is extremely important for solid-state battery commercialization. Besides huge market potential, they bring to solidstate battery development know-how regarding EV/ HEV battery requirements, battery pack assembly, testing, and qualification. And in fact, the simplification of battery pack design and its components will improve solid-state battery’s cost-competitiveness compared to conventional Li-ion batteries. Other players include conventional Li-ion battery cell manufacturers (i.e. Samsung SDI, LG Chem, A123 Systems), battery separator technology solutions suppliers (Asahi Kasei), and materials suppliers (Solvay, Umicore, etc.). According to Yole Développement’s market forecast, mass production of solid-state batteries will begin by 2022 and represent less than 1% of Li-ion battery demand by 2025. This might explain the relative low interest from equipment suppliers, which might change later on when the building of large solid-state battery manufacturing capacities commences.
A123 Systems, Asahi Kasei, Blue Solutions, BMW, Bolloré, Bosch, BrightVolt, CATL, CEA, China Dynamics, Continental, Delf University of Technology, Dongshi Kingpower Science and Technology Ltd, Forge Nano, Fraunhofer ISC, GS Yuasa, Hitachi Zosen, Hydro Québec, Idemitsu Kosan, Ilika, IMEC, Ionic Materials, Johnson Battery Technologies, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Kalptree, Kuraray, LG Chem, Manz, NEI Corporation, Nissan, Panasonic, Pathion, PSA Peugot Citroën, Quantumscape, Renault, Saft, Samsung SDI, Sakti3, Siemens, Solid Energy, Solid Power, Solvay, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Toray, Toshiba, Toyota, Umicore, University of Bath, University of Münster, University of Oxford, Volkswagen, and more.
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