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Crystalline Silicon PV Technology, Equipment and Materials
Mar.2012

efficiency pv module
5 990 €

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Description

Yole CrystallineSiPV 2012PV industry status and trends C-Si PV equipment: how to turn challenges into opportunities

EQUIPMENT MARKET IS MAINLY DRIVEN BY HIGH PV EFFICIENCY

In the years to come, the manufacturing cost reduction in the PV industry will be led by equipment and material innovations. As only a part of the whole existing crystalline silicon manufacturing capacity is suited to the production of very high efficiency solar cells and modules, Yole Développement assumes that a part of the manufacturing capacity will be shut down or used at low utilization rates, and new capacities suited for very high efficiency products will be added. This provides an opportunity for PV equipment manufacturers to find customers despite existing production overcapacities.


Yearly Market Value
Yole Développement forecasts that about 35 GWp of new solar cell manufacturing equipment will be purchased by 2017. In this part of the report the main technologies and corresponding equipment used in c-Si solar cell and module manufacturing are analyzed in detail. For each equipment its description, main characteristics, innovations and market trends, 2011-2017 market figures and main suppliers are given. The challenges and opportunities for equipment manufacturers are also provided.


HIGH PV EFFICIENCY IS A KEY DRIVER FOR COSTS DECREASE

Current technology and market consolidation are revealing an increased interest in high-efficiency cell and module approaches. We provide details on how high PV efficiency enables product differentiation and cuts on manufacturing and system costs and Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE). 

Different very high cell and module efficiency approaches are reviewed, showing the opportunities for crystalline silicon as well as for some thin-film PV manufacturers.

Efficiency pv module
In  order to reach very high cell and module efficiency (respectively over 19% and 16%), specific technology approaches, new materials and new equipment are required. Materials such as quasi-mono silicon wafers and new equipment (ion implant tools, amorphous silicon deposition tools) are reviewed and their potential is analyzed. The factors that have to be taken into consideration during the development of new equipment for very high efficiency solar cells are also discussed.


HOW TO STAY PROFITABLE IN THE PHOTOVOLTAIC BUSINESS

Thanks to incentive policies, in the past the photovoltaic  market experienced double digit average annual growth rates, and more than 27GWp were installed during the year 2011. This resulted in a massive increase of the manufacturing capacities to cover the increasing demand. However, recently, lowered incentive mechanisms resulted in a market demand lower than expected. In consequence, high manufacturing overcapacities and module inventory result in a strong price pressure on the PV market and finally leads to technology and market consolidation. PV cell and module manufacturers as well as PV material and equipment suppliers are facing hard times and are trying to find a solution on how to keep their business profitable. Different manufacturers and suppliers strategies are reviewed in this part of the report. Today, the key objective of PV manufacturers is no longer to increase their production capacities, but to differentiate themselves from their competitors in an overcrowded market thanks to added value products (with lower price, higher efficiency,…).  Innovations in the field of PV equipment, materials & manufacturing processes are thus more important than ever.

incentive mechanisms
WHY CRYSTALLINE SILICON REMAINS A LEADING PV TECHNOLOGY?

As photovoltaics becomes a commodity market and many different PV products are commercially available, the old vision of a PV technology development in which thin-film PV technologies would progressively increase their market shares has become obsolete. Through the last years, the technology progress in crystalline silicon (c-Si) technology has surpassed all expectations. Today, the c-Si modules are available at prices close or even lower than $1 per Wp, comparable with those of the thin-film PV modules, while their efficiency is significantly higher, providing the system  level a premium value. The main advantages of c-Si as well as the potential for further improvement of c-Si manufacturing costs and performances are discussed here in detail. The technology performance and applications are compared with thin-film PV technologies (amorphous silicon, CdTe, CIGS).

 

Table of contents

Introduction 5
Content of the report 7
What’s changed compared to the 2009 report? 8
Executive summary 10
PV industry status and Trends 28
> Market & technology consolidation
> Crystalline silicon PV equipment market 2011-2017
> Race for higher cell and module efficiencies

C-Si amongst other PV technologies 78
> Technology Comparison
> Crystalline Silicon
Equipment technology and market 95
> Introduction
> Why to purchase new equipment if there is already a manufacturing overcapacity?
> Our methodology
> Saw damage removal & Texturing
> P-n junction formation
> Junction isolation
> PSG removal
> SiNx antireflection coating
>Metallization
> Contact Firing
> Cell Testing & Sorting
> C-Si module manufacturing
> Module lamination
> Conclusion

General conclusion 241

Companies Cited

2BG
3S Swiss Solar Systems
48th Research Institute
Akron Systems
Apollon Solar
Applied Materials
ASYS Solar
BASF
Bürkle
BTU
Canadian Solar
Centrotherm
Cermet Materials
Chimet
Coherent
CSUN
Day4Energy
DelSolar
Despatch Industries
Dow Corning
DuPont
ECN
Ecoprogetti
ET Solar
Eurotron
Fraunhofer ISE
Ferro 
Gorosabel
Hanwha Solar One
Heraeus
IMEC
IMT
INES
Innolas
JA Solar
Jinko Solar
Jusung
KANEKA
Komax Solar
LDK Solar
Machines Dubuit
Manz
Meco
Micro-Tec
Monocrystal
Nisshinbo Industries
NPC
OTB Solar
P.Energy
Panasonic
Pemco
Q-Cells
RENA
Reis Robotics 
Renesola
Robert Meier
Rofin
Roth&Rau
Sandwik Thermal Process
Sanyo
Schiller
Schmid
SEMCO Engineering
Sevenstar
Schott Solar
Sierratherm
Singulus
Spire Corporation
Suniva
Suntech Power
Stangl
Sunpower
SVCS
Tecnofimes
Teknisolar
Tempress
Trina Solar
Trumpf
Vincent Industrie
VSEA
Wemhöner Systems Technologies
Yingli Green Energy

 

KEY FEATURES OF THE REPORT

All applications of GaAs wafer and market metrics, detailing:

  • Comprehensive overview of the current situation on the PV market allowing better understanding of the customer needs and proper evaluation of the strategies to be chosen by equipment suppliers and cell and module manufacturers to keep their business running
  • 2011-2017 figures for PV installations and market shares for different PV technologies
  • Deep analysis of the current market and technology consolidation with a focus on the competitive position of the crystalline silicon against thin-film PV (amorphous silicon, CIGS and CdTe) and on the importance of the high efficiency in the market differentiation and costs decrease
  • Detailed overview of the different processes, equipment and materials used in the solar cell and module manufacturing
  • 2011-2017 market figures for the key equipment for the crystalline silicon solar cell and module manufacturing (in number of units and in M$)[/features]