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GaN-on-Si Substrate Technology and Market for LED and Power Electronics
Apr.2014

yole gan-on-si penetrationrate march 2014 report web
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Description

YOLE Gan on Si 2014GaN-on-Si enables GaN power electronics, will LED transition as well?

GaN-ON-Si LED IS ALREADY ADOPTED BY SOME LED MANUFACTURERS, BUT COULD IT BECOME THE INDUSTRY STANDARD?

Today, GaN on Sapphire is the main stream technology for LED manufacturing. GaN-on-Si technology appeared naturally as an alternative to sapphire to reduce cost. Our cost simulation indicates that the differential in silicon substrate cost is not enough to justify the transition to GaN-on-Si technology. The main driver is the ability to manufacture in existing, depreciated CMOS fabs in 6” or 8”.

Despite potential cost benefits for LEDs, the mass adoption of GaN-on-Si technology for LED applications remains unclear. Opinions regarding the chance of success for LED-on-Si vary widely in the LED industry from unconditional enthusiasm to unjustified skepticism. Virtually all major LED makers are researching GaN-on-Si LED, but few have made it the core of their strategy and technology roadmap. Among the proponents, only Lattice Power, Plessey and Toshiba have moved to production and are offering commercial LED-on-Si.

At Yole Développement, we believe that although significant improvements have been achieved, there are still some technology hurdles (performance, yields, CMOS compatibility). We consider that if the technology hurdles are cleared, GaN-on-Si LEDs will be adopted by some LED manufacturers, but will not become the industry standard. We expect that Silicon will capture less than 5% of LED manufacturing by 2020.

Yole GaN-ON-Si PenetrationRate March 2014 Report web

GaN-ON-Si TECHNOLOGY WILL BE WIDELY ADOPTED BY POWER ELECTRONICS APPLICATIONS

The power electronics market addresses applications such as AC to DC or DC to AC conversion, which is always associated with substantial energy losses that increase with higher power and operating frequencies. Incumbent silicon based technology is reaching its limit and it is difficult to meet higher requirements. GaN based power electronics have the potential to significantly improve efficiency at both high power and frequencies while reducing device complexity and weight. Power GaN are therefore emerging as a substitution to the silicon based technology. Today, Power GaN remains at its early stage and presents only a tiny part of power electronics market.

We are quite optimistic about the adoption of GaN-on-Si technology for Power GaN devices. GaN-on-Si technology have brought to market the first GaN devices. Contrary to the LED industry, where GaN-on-Sapphire technology is main stream and presents a challenging target, GaN-on-Si will dominate the GaN based power electronics market because of its lower cost and CMOS compatibility. Although GaN based devices remain more expensive than Si based devices today, the overall cost of GaN devices for some applications are expected to be lower than Si devices three years from now, according to some manufacturers.

Yole GaN-ON-Si RecentMA March 2014 Report web

In our nominal case, GaN based devices could reach more than 7% of the overall power device market by 2020. GaN-on-Si wafers will capture more than 1.5% of the overall power substrate volume, representing more than 50% of the overall GaN-on-Si wafer volume, subjecting to the hypothesis that the 600V devices would take off in 2014-2015.


GaN-ON-Si EPIWAFER: BUY IT OR MAKE IT?
WHICH BUSINESS WILL BE DOMINATED?

To adopt the GaN-on-Si technology, device makers have the choice between buying epiwafers or templates on the open market, or buying MOCVD reactors and making epiwafer by themselves. Today, there is a limited number of players selling either epiwafers or templates or both on the open market. These players comes from Japan, US and Europe. We have not observed an absolute dominance from one region.

As perceived by device markers, each business model has its pros & cons in terms of IP, technology dependence, R&D investments, and time. According to our analysis, we do not expect to see a significant template/epiwafer business emerge for LEDs and consider that LEDs makers would prefer making their epiwafers internally for mass production. For the power electronics industry, the opinion is divided. We consider that buying epiwafers could work as long as the price of the epiwafer on the open market keeps decreasing.

Yole GaN-ON-Si 2013GaNdevice March 2014 Report web

Table of contents

Acronyms 3
Objectives of report 4
Terminology 5
Executive Summary 6
Latest News 24
GaN-on-Si technology overview 31
> Growth techniques
- GaN-on-Si: growth technique overview
- MBE
- MOCVD
- Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy
- Comparison of epitaxy techniques
> Technological challenges and as known solutions
- GaN-on-Si template & epiwafer: Manufacturing steps
- GaN-on-Si epitaxy challenges
- Si surface preparation
- Prevention of the melt-back etching
- Different types of buffer layers
- Crack and Wafer Bow due to TCE Mismatch
- Stress managements
- Dislocation in GaN-on-Si system
- Dislocation reduction
- 3D to 2D transition
- SiNx in situe masking for dislocation control
- GaN-on-Si :LED vs power electronics applications
- GaN-on-Si: remaining issues
> Si and GaN orientations
- Silicon substrate orientation
- GaN structure orientation
- Non-polar & semi-polar GaN
- Semi polar and non polar GaN-on-Si
> GaN-on-Si engineered substrates
- Engineered substrate via Smart Cut™
- Engineered substrate players: Soitec (FR) and AmberWave (US)
> Engineered substrates: conclusion

LED applications 78

> LED applications overview
- Introduction and segmentation to High Brightness LEDs
- LED applications
- Benefits of LEDs
- Cost aspects
- Packaged LED price trends
- Cost structure of lighting products
- Conclusions on cost
- LED adoption trends
- Current and long-term LED adoption trends
- 2008-2020 packaged LED revenue forecast by application
- LED qualified die surface forecast by application
- Market cannibalization and economic incentives for manufacturers
- Evolution of lighting socket occupancy by technology
> Manufacturing and LED chip structures
- LED manufacturing process
- Sorting & binning
- GaN LED chip design
> LED-on-Si: technology aspects
- Introduction
- GaN-on-Si LED structure
- Main technology challenges
- Light absorption by Si: impact on LED structure and process
> LED-on-Si: conditions for success
- Important metrics and definitions
- Efficiency droop
- LED-on-Si performance
- Binning yield
- CMOS fabs compatibility
- Conditions for success: summary
- Potential impact of using Si for LED manufacturing
- Potential Impact on the industry
> LED on Si: zoom on cost aspects
- LED cost simulation tool
- Cost simulation: process flow
- Yole generic LED-on-Si process flow
- Cost simulation
- Overview of potential cost reduction claims
- Cost simulation discussions
- Impact at package level
- Conclusions
> GaN-on-Si LEDs: key players
- GaN-on-Si LED markets players
- LED makers positioning
- GaN-on-Si LEDs : recent comments
- Key players industry (1)
- Key players academic
- Aledia (FR)
- Azzurro Semiconductors (GE)
- Bridgelux (USA)
- Bridgelux (USA)
- glo (Sweden)
- Plessey (UK)
- Lattice Power
> GaN-on-Si LEDs: conclusions and forecast
- Will LED-on-Si happen?
- GaN-on-Si LEDs scenarios
- GaN LED on Si penetration forecast
- GaN LED on Si 2012 – 2020 volume % revenue forecast

Power GaN electronic applications 173
> Power electronics market overview
- Power GaN electronic applications
- Power electronics market global feedback
- 2006- 2020 Power electronics market size: split by device type split (> 400V)
- Overall power electronics market:  2013–2020 value-chain analysis: wafer, device, system
- 2013 power electronics market: split by voltage range
> Power GaN introduction
- Three main choices for power electronics applications
- Si vs. GaN vs. SiC : figure-of-merit
- Existing silicon based devices
- Benefits of GaN
- GaN power devices: possible applications
- Established power semiconductor company involvement in GaN and future plans
- Recent M&A, investments and fund raisings in the GaN area

> GaN-on-Si for power electronics applications: technical and cost aspect
- Power GaN-on-Si epitaxial structures
- GaN-on-Si/ Main technical steps over the value-chain
- EPC GaN HEMT. 200V / 12A process cost analysis
- Market price of a 600V/10A transistor comparison Si, GaN-on-Si, GaN-on-GaN & SiC
- Manufacturing cost: 2013 VS 2016, viewed by IR and EPC
- GaN-on-Si power electronics players
- Power GaN players & related business model
- Power device manufacturers: origin of GaN involvement
- From prototype to mass-production: status of GaN-on-Si device makers as of 2013
- Efficient Power Conversion (EPC) (US)
> GaN-on-Si power device development
- Power range of the targeted applications
- GaN transistor type acceptance matrix
- 2013 GaN device state-of-the-art (V & Amp) vs. application requests
- 2020 projection GaN device state-of-the-art (V & Amp) vs. application requests
- GaN-based power devices : overview of on-going initiatives
> GaN-on-Si for power electronics applications: conclusion and forecast
- GaN-on-what? GaN-on-Si will be the winner!
- GaN could reach 7% of the overall power device market by 2020 in the best case
- GaN devices in power application: 2010-2020 market size, split by application
- Power GaN wafer choice: 6” or 8”
- GaN-on-Si Epiwafers will reach 1.6 % of the overall power substrate volume by 2020…
- 2013-2020 6” GaN-on-Si epiwafers volume

Do LED makers have extra MOCVD capacity to make GaN-on-Si power devices 222

> MOCVD capacity of LED makers
> GaN MOCVD capacity vs. demand
> From LED to power?

GaN-on-Si market 227

> GaN-on-Si epiwafer: open market players
> Mapping of open market players
> AZZURRO Semiconductors (GE)
> BluGlass (AU)
> Dowa Electronic Materials Co. Ltd (JP)
> EpiGaN (B)
> IMEC (Belgium)
> Kyma Technologies (US)
> NOVAGAN
> NTT AT (JP)
> Powdec K.K (JP)
> Translucent (US)
> Main specifications of players
> Others GaN-on-Si players
> GaN-on-Si Epiwafer: Buy it or make it
> The pro/cons of various GaN-on-Si substrate procurement: as perceived by device makers
> GaN-on-Si epiwafer
> GaN-on-Si epiwafer market forecast
> 2013-2020 6” GaN-on-Si epiwafer volumes: open + captive market
> 6” GaN-on-Si epiwafer

General conclusions 259

 



Companies cited

AETech
Air Water
Aixtron
Alpha & Omega AOS
Aledia
AmberWaveInc.
AZZURRO
BluGlass
Bridgelux
CorEnergy
Dow Corning
Dowa Electronics Materials
Dynax SemiconductorInc.
EPC
EpiGaN
Epistar
Fairchild
Freescale
Fuji Electric

Fujitsu Semiconductor
Furukawa
GaN Systems
Glo
Infineon
Intel
International Rectifier
Imec
IQE
Kyma
Lattice Power
LG
Lumileds
MicroGaN
Mitsubishi Chemical
Nichia
NTT
NXP
ONSemi
Osram
Panasonic
Philips
Plessey
Powdec
Power Integrations
Renesas
RFMD
Rohm
Samsung
Sanken
Seoul Semiconductor
SINANO
Sharp
Soitec
Sony
Soraa
STMicroelectronics
Sumitomo

 

KEY FEATURES OF THE REPORT

  • Covers the incumbent manufacturing technologies for GaN-on-Si:
    - Growth methods
    - Technological challenge and solutions
  • Main players of GaN-on-Si epiwafer
  • Cost and technology aspects of GaN-on-Si for LEDs and Power electronics applications
  • Discussion on possible business models for adoption of GaN-on-Si technology
  • Volume and revenue forecasts to 2020