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LED Phosphors
Oct.2012

examples of phosphor deposition
5 990 €

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Description

LED Phospors Flyer-coverIndependent phosphor companies free the market from IP blocking by market leaders

LED PHOSPHOR MARKET TO MORE THAN DOUBLE IN THE NEXT FIVE YEARS

At the dawn of the HB LED industry in the early 2000’s, the bulk of the LED phosphor industry was under the control of the major LED players that held key IP in the various domains, and selectively granted licenses and cross-licenses.  The landscape changed in the mid 2000’s with the emergence of phosphors that were “IP-free” credible alternatives to YAG and TAG, commercialized on the open market by independent phosphor manufacturers unaffiliated with LED manufacturers. 


Total LED Phosphor Revenue

This report provides a detailed list of more than 50 companies that are involved in LED phosphor manufacturing. More than 20 of them are located in China, where we’re observing the emergence of vendors with improving quality and potentially credible IP to satisfy the tier-one Chinese LED makers that have world class ambitions and who favor IP and performance vs. price. 

Overall, we expect the phosphor market to grow significantly during the next five years, and potentially pass the $1 billion mark by the end of this period. However, a significant fraction of this market will remain captive. This report provides average selling price trends and detailed forecasts by phosphor type and composition.


TECHNOLOGY IS STILL A KEY OPPORTUNITY FOR DIFFERENTIATION IN ORDER TO INCREASE PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN IN THE FACE OF A STRONG AND LIMITING IP


The combination of YAG phosphor + blue LED remains the solution of choice for applications where high CRI and warm color temperature are not required, but Nichia’s strong IP limits access to YAG to selected partners and major LED manufacturers that have been able to negotiate cross-license agreements thanks to their own strong IP position. While still not on an equal footing with YAG in terms of performance, Silicates have improved significantly and are closing the gap. However, as Nichia’s critical IP is set to expire in the next few years, an increasing number of phosphor manufacturers are offering YAG compositions as well. 

The next battle in the LED phosphor industry stems from the rapid growth of LED applications that require warm colors and saturated reds in display or residential and retail lighting. For these, additional red and/or green phosphors are added to the mix. Nitrides and Oxynitrides offer excellent performance but are both controlled by Denka and Mitsubishi Chemicals, with strong IP obtained from NIMS. Market price for these materials is 5x to 10x higher than that of yellow phosphors.


Examples of Phosphor Deposition

Multiple organizations are therefore scrambling to develop better, cheaper and non IP-restricted compositions. Tungstates, molybdates, carbidonitrides, Green Aluminates and Selenides are being investigated. In addition, Quantum Dots are finally emerging as a credible alternative to traditional phosphor in some applications. 

But phosphor composition is not the only key factor. Manufacturing technology, deposition methods and system design all have significant impact on LED and overall system cost and performance. This report provides a detailed list of established and emerging compositions and deposition technologies.


REMOTE PHOSPHORS COULD PRESENT A SIGNIFICANT UPSIDE


Remote phosphors offer significant benefits in terms of system performance and efficiency. 
However, they increase the required amount of phosphor material and associated cost by orders of magnitude. This constitutes the major roadblock for adoption. With some applications though, remote phosphors are the best option for reaching the required performance, and the additional phosphor cost can be partially or completely offset at the system level by improving the overall performance and reducing component count. 


Power budget of phospor converted LED

The adoption of remote phosphors is decided on a case-by-case basis depending on the application, performance and cost targets. 


A RARE EARTH SHORTAGE COULD IMPACT THE LED INDUSTRY IN THE MID-TERM


While supply constraints on Light Rare Earth should ease soon, tension will persist for the heavier elements, including Yttrium, Terbium and Europium, which are critical to both fluorescent lamp and LED makers. Shortages could appear and persist even after 2015. Fluorescent lamp is the major application competing with LED for these resources. In the short-term, as incandescent and other inefficient light sources are phased out of the market in most countries, the consumption of fluorescent lamps will increase significantly, putting additional strain on supply. 


Table of contents

Table of Contents 2

Acronyms 6
Introduction 7
Phosphor Applications - Overview and Trends 8

> Executive summary 
> LED market trends p21
> Executive summary
> Segmentations of HB LEDs
> Overview of LED applications
> History of LED industry growth cycles
> Packaged LED revenue forecast by application
> Recent trends
> Packaged LED price trends
> Leading LED packaging companies 2011 revenue ranking

Phosphor Technology Overview 32


> Executive summary
> Overview of phosphor configurations and deposition methods
> Phosphors for LED: how to make white LEDs?
> Phosphors key requirements
> Phosphor particle size and distribution 
> The different types of PC-LEDs
> PC LEDs overview
> Angle color consistency
> Trends in PC LEDs
> Deposition methods: dispersion and needle vs. jet dispensing
> Conformal coating
> Preformed phosphors
> Textured phosphors
> Package types and phosphor consumption
> Illustration: COB package
> Illustration: preformed and package level conformal coating
> Illustration: a variety of LED packages

Remote Phosphors 58


> Executive summary
> Benefits: photon recycling
> Benefits: efficiency
> Benefits: color consistency
> Drawbacks
> Pros and cons
> Remote phosphor IP
> Remote phosphor system architecture: 2D and 3D
> Applications: downlight
> Example: Philips Fortimo
> Applications: LED replacement bulb
> Example: Philips Endura
> System design considerations
> Remote phosphor potential applications

Phosphor Compositions 80


> Executive summary
> Overview
> Most standard phosphor compositions
> Emerging or less common phosphor
compositions
> Garnet phosphor
> Silicate phosphor
> Nitride and oxynitride phosphors
> Sulfides
> Prospective phosphor compositions: narrow band emitters
> Future directions
> Summary

Market Analysis and Quantifications 109


> Executive summary
> Leading manufacturers: Europe and North America
> Zoom on China
> Leading manufacturers: rest of Asia
> Phosphor ASP
> Element of supply chains
> LED Phosphor IP
> Market quantifications: 
- Methodology
- Surface of phosphor converted chips
- Challenges, key hypothesis
- Scenario #1: No remote phosphor
- Remote phosphor hypothesis
- Volumes with remote phosphors
- Revenue
- Captive and open markets

Quantum Dots and Nano Phosphors 142


> Executive summary
> Overview and definition
> Manufacturing
> Manufacturing (illustrations) 
> Display applications
> Conclusions for displays
> Partnerships in display
> Lighting applications
> Conclusions for lighting
> Examples: lighting
> Quantum dots in EL mode
> Main players
> Nano-Phosphors

Rare Earth Supply and Demand 160


> Executive summary
> Overview
> Major rare earth element applications
> Main applications per element
> Rare earth oxide consumption trends
> Supply and demand: overview
> Supply and demand: rare earth as a geo-political strategic asset for China
> Supply and demand: China rare earth policies
> Domestic consumption in China
> China export quotas
> REO price trends
> China: domestic vs. FOB prices
> Supply and demand trends 
> Rare earth distribution in different mines (examples)
> Major rare earth operations under development
> Long-term supply trends
> Rare earth use in lighting phosphors
> Rare earth crisis impact on fluorescent lamps
> Rare earth crisis impact on LED
> Supply and demand trends of rare earth for phosphor
use
> LED or Fluorescence: rare earth content estimate

Company Profiles 187


> Summay
> Dalian Luming
> Denka 
> Grirem
> Intematix
> Litec - Merck
> Leuchtstoffwerk (LWB)
> Mitsubishi Chemical
> Nakamura Yuji Science and Technology
> Nichia

 

Companies Cited

Alkane Ressource
Aratura
Asian Rare Earth
Aurora Energie Corp
Avago
Avalon Metal
Beijing Nakamura Yuji Science and Technology
Chi Mei Opto
China Glaze
Citizen Electronics
Cree
Daeioo Electronic Materials
Dalian Luming
Denka
Disco
Dominant
Dott Technology
Dow Electronic Materials
Eastman Kodak
Edison Opto
Essemtec
Everlight
Evident Technology
Force 4
GE
Global Tungsten
Great Western Mineral Group
Greenland Minerals & Energy
Grirem
Hangzhou Daming Phosphor Material
Hano-Li
Harvatek
Horner APG
Hsiung-Din
Hung-Ta
Intematix
Irico
Iswell
Jiangmen KanHoo Industry (Keheng)
Jiangnan Phosphor
Jiangsu Bree Optronics
Jingneng
KAIST
KRICT
Kumho Electric
Ledzworld Technology
Leuchtstoffwerk (LWB)
Lextar
LG
Light Prescription Innovators (LPI)
Lightscape
Lite On
Litec
Lorad Chemical
Lucimea
Lumimicro
Lumisand
Lynas
Mason
Merck
Mesolight
Mitsubishi Chemicals
Molycorp
Mujin
Nanoco
Nanosys
Nemoto
Neo Material Technology
Nichia
NIMS
NN Crystal
Nordson Asymtek
NVC
One Dar Photon Foshan
Orissa
Osram
Pacific Light Technology
Perkin Elmer
Philips
Philips Lumileds
Phosphor Technology
Phosphortech
Plansee
QD Vision 
QDLight
Quest Rare Earth
Rare Earth Element Resources
Raypower
Renaissance Lighting
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)
Rohm
Samsung LED
Samyu
SANDIA
Sazento
Seoul Semiconductor
Shanghai Keyan
Shanghai Yuelong New Materials
Shareshine Optoelectronic Technology
Sharp
Shiled Group International
Shinetsu
Silian
Sojitz Corp
Soraa
Stanley
Sumitomo
Sumitomo Metal Mining
Sunon Opto
Tokyo Kagaku Kenkyusho
Toyoda Gosei
Toyota
Tridonic
UBE Material Industry
Ucore
Unity Opto
University of Münster
Vexica Technology
Vishay
Wings Enterprise
Wyndsor Lighting LLC
Xiamen Topstar Lighting
Xicato
YahSin… 

 

KEY FEATURES OF THE REPORT

  • Detailed description of the LED phosphor industry, including an extensive list of manufacturers, an analysis of established and emerging composition and deposition methods, and detailed quantifications
  • Analysis of major technology trends like the emergence of remote phosphor and Quantum Dots
  • Due to its potential impact on the LED phosphor industry, the Rare Earth supply crisis and future supply and demand trends are analyzed in detail, with an emphasis on the elements that are critical for the fluorescent and LED lighting industries