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Stationary Storage and Automotive Li-ion Battery Packs

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couv flyer battery

The added value in batteries spreads from battery cells to battery pack components

Battery pack components are gaining importance in the fast-growing battery pack market, reaching $65.7B by 2021

The battery pack is the key element of battery storage systems. Such systems are used for clean mobility in hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles, and are crucial for the further deployment of intermittent renewable energy sources like wind and photovoltaics. Also, battery storage solutions are increasingly used in buildings and for electrical grid stabilization.

Demand for battery packs in these applications is growing rapidly, and the market value for pack components will reach $65.7B by 2021 - with a 2015 - 2021 CAGR of 47.4%.

The majority of battery pack demand will come from the automotive industry. As shown in this report, in 2015 the demand in MWh for plug-in hybrid electric and battery electric vehicles was about 18x higher than for stationary applications. This ratio will remain almost unchanged by 2021 because both the automotive and stationary markets will feature strong growth. Stationary applications also present opportunities for companies with relatively small production capacities that are not compatible with automotive industry volumes but offer a higher differentiation/added value.

Today, the development of innovative battery technologies is focused mainly on battery cells as a key component of the battery pack. In fact, cells represent more than 50% of the battery pack cost. As shown in this report, strongly decreasing cell costs will shift R&D efforts to other battery cost elements like the battery management system (BMS), thermal management (cooling, heating, thermally conductive materials), and protection solutions.

Many players with the know-how and/or manufacturing capacities for such technology solutions have already identified this business opportunity and are diversifying their activities into the battery pack business.

This report provides the 2015 - 2021 market potential for each main battery pack component.

Inverter Market Evolution by power range 

Moving towards a reshaping of the battery pack supply chain

Battery cell supply is already well-consolidated, with Panasonic, LG Chem, Samsung SDI, and SONY covering more than 70% of the demand. But contrary to cell supply, the battery pack components supply chain is still largely dispersed.

According to Yole Développement’s estimates, more than 400 companies worldwide offer battery pack integration services. And despite numerous battery pack applications and different cost/performance requirements, there isn’t room for every player. Therefore, strong consolidation is expected in the main markets, and companies will reinforce their position by establishing partnerships and via vertical/horizontal integration within the battery pack supply chain.

Daimler, BYD, Tesla, BMW, Nissan and some other EV/HEV makers, as well as some Tier1 automotive companies, have already entered the stationary battery market and/or the battery pack manufacturing business.

Photovoltaic panel suppliers, residential PV installers (Solarcity), utility companies (E.ON, EDF), battery makers, photovoltaic inverter manufacturers, and many other companies are focused on the residential battery business. Energy providers like Total and Engie have recently announced significant investment in companies offering utility-size battery energy storage solutions.

The availability of second-life batteries at potentially much lower cost attracts companies involved in the energy business (Vatenfall, Duke Energy, Engie). And recycling companies, directly impacted by second-life batteries and having most of the necessary know-how and equipment already available, are evaluating this market too.

Todays battery pack supply chain is still very dispersed 

Seeking high energy density, safety, and lower cost

A battery pack is a complex system which often represents a significant part of the system cost. Innovative designs and technology solutions are needed to reduce cost, reach high energy and power densities, and keep the battery operating at optimum performance within safe temperature, voltage, and current ranges.

Cooling systems, thermal packaging materials, over-current protection solutions, fuses, interconnect solutions, busbars, application-specific battery management systems (BMS), and other products are being developed by numerous companies that have detected early market opportunities here.

The battery pack market is driven by the demand for EV/HEV applications, and so too is the development of technology solutions for battery packs. However, stationary energy applications often require specific technology solutions such as air-conditioning for battery cooling, and cooling-free small battery packs. With stationary battery demand growing, such solutions are gaining interest.

Product differentiation via pack design and components is commonly sought in the EV/HEV and stationary markets. Specific technology solutions are being researched to grant automotive batteries a “second life”. The end-of-life treatment of automotive batteries is governed by environmental issues and undesired costs for car manufacturers. Employing used automotive batteries in stationary battery storage systems for another 10 years-plus is an appealing thought, but it comes with many challenges.

The battery pack with its main components is a central element of battery energy storage solutions 

Objectives of the Report

This report’s objectives are to:

  • Demonstrate the strong, consistently-growing potential for power electronics players in the energy storage business, based on Li-ion battery technologies
  • Discuss market opportunities for players that can supply materials, devices, or technology solutions to the lithium-ion battery pack industry
  • Provide insight into different technologies currently used, technology trends, and newest innovations for battery pack elements
  • Cover a large variety of different products and technology solutions used in battery packs – products/solutions which provide strong differentiation/added-value and allow for application-specific solutions to be adapted
  • Offer deep insight into end-of-life battery issues, i.e. recycling and second-life battery applications
  • Provide an overview of key players for battery cells, battery packs, and battery pack components


Table of contents

Introduction 7

 Executive summary  13

 Batteries and battery packs  51

> Battery pack definition for this report
> Battery module vs. battery pack    
> Battery pack vs. battery system    
> Battery pack as a central element of battery energy storage solutions    
> Battery pack to match the cells with applications    
> Battery sizes and applications    
> Why is battery pack development driven by EV/HEV?    
> Battery pack voltage and energy capacity per application    
> Battery pack – a multicomponent, multidisciplinary system


Focus Battery pack and battery pack components market 69

> Market segmentation and methodology
> Battery pack market segments
> Battery market drivers
> Benefits of battery energy storage solutions for analyzed applications
> Battery pack size per electric vehicle
> 2015 - 2021 battery pack demand in MWh – split per pack segment
> 2015 - 2021 battery pack demand in MWh – split per pack segment (w/o automotive)
> 2015 - 2021 battery pack demand in units – split per pack segment
> 2015 - 2021 battery pack demand in units – split per pack segment (w/o automotive)
> 2015 - 2021 battery pack market value in $M – split per pack segment
> 2015 - 2021 battery pack demand in $M – split per pack segment (w/o automotive)
> 2015 - 2021 battery pack market value in $M – split per pack component
> 2015 - 2021 stationary battery pack market value in $M – split per pack component


Battery pack costs 86

> 2015 - 2021 evolution of battery pack cost for each segment    
> Share of cell cost in 2015 battery pack cost for automotive and stationary segments    
> What does the price depend on?     
> 2015 - 2021 automotive battery cell price and cost of cells-to-pack integration    
> Automotive battery pack – 2015 cost breakdown     
> Automotive battery pack – 2021 cost breakdown    
> Where is the potential for battery pack cost decrease?   


Battery pack supply chain 97

> Li-ion battery pack supply chain overview    
> Battery cell manufacturers     
> Battery pack manufacturers     
> Battery pack manufacturers – leading Chinese players    
> Battery management system solution suppliers    
> Battery thermal management solution suppliers    
> Battery electrical protection solution suppliers    
> Companies involved in Li-ion battery recycling    
> Companies involved in second-life battery applications    
> The residential battery business attracts many players    
> Synergies create new opportunities for partnerships and integration


Battery cells  111

> The battery cell as a base brick of a battery storage solution    
> Li-ion battery cell designs    
> Li-ion battery chemistries    
> Energy density of different Li-ion battery chemistries    
> What is the best Li-ion cell chemistry?   
> Technology trends in battery cell development


Battery pack safety issues  119

> Drivers for battery protection devices    
> Safety issues related to Li-ion batteries – thermal runaway    
> Overview of technical hazards related to battery packs    
> Thermal, current, and voltage protections  
> Safety measures to decrease risk related to Li-ion batteries     
> Battery safety measures at different levels    


Power electronics  130

> Overcurrent protection
> Fuses                    
> Comparison of fuses and relays    
> Battery protection trends


Battery thermal management solutions 142

> Why is an appropriate temperature control important?    
> Overview of battery thermal management approaches    
> Why is the cell type crucial for battery cooling system design?    
> Optimal temperature range for Li-ion batteries    
> Thermal protection devices
> Battery cooling system features sought
> Air cooling vs. liquid cooling
> Automotive applications – liquid cooling
> Automotive applications – air cooling
> Automotive applications – cooling based on refrigerant
> Stationary battery pack cooling
> Large-size stationary battery energy storage systems (BESS) cooling    
> Container BESS cooling    
> Focus on phase change materials – how does it work?    
> Phase change materials in battery packs    
> Thermoelectric cooler/heater    
> Thermoelectric module   

Electrical interconnects  164

> Where are electrical interconnections needed?    
> Overview of electrical interconnections at the module level    
> Advantages and disadvantages of different cell interconnection technologies    
> Market share for different cell interconnection technologies    
> Examples of innovative products    
> Electrical interconnections at the battery pack level    
> Innovation trends in battery electrical interconnections


Battery management system  175

> Why is a battery management system (BMS) needed?    
> BMS functions    
> BMS challenges    
> Battery cell balancing    
> Cell balancing methods   

Battery pack housing   182      

> Battery pack housing materials and functions    
> Housing at the module level and at the pack level   


Second-life battery applications 187

> Second-life battery overview    
> Existing valuation approaches for used/damaged batteries
> Second-life battery applications    
> Second-life battery challenges    
> Activities and companies involved in second-life battery     
> What’s the real challenge for second-life batteries?   

Battery recycling  195

> Why recycle Li-ion batteries?    
> Li-ion battery recycling challenges    
> What is recycled and who are the customers?    
> Li-ion battery recycling process and synergies with second-life batteries    
> Li-ion battery recycling processes    
> Eco-design of a battery pack    
> Main lithium-producing and lithium-consuming countries   

Conclusion 205


Companies cited

AES Energy Storage
AllCell Technologies
Calsonic Kansei
Dongguan Tianrui Electronic Co. Ltd.
Dowa Eco-System
Efen GmbH
ETI Elektroelement
Fischer Elektronik
Freeport Cobalt
GS Yuasa
Forsee Power
Freeport Cobalt
Furukawa Battery
Iron Edison
JX Nimmpon Mining & Metals
K.Tex (Knein Technische Textilien)
LG Chem

NEC Corporation
Phase Change Material Products Ltd. (PCM Products)
Retriev Technologies
Samsung SDI
Schneider Electric
Sumitomo Metals
Sunonwealth Electric Machine Industry Company Limited (SUNON)
E Connectivity
Tabuchi Electric
TE Connectivity


























  • 2015 - 2021 market (in MWh, units, and $M) for lithium-ion battery packs in automotive and stationary battery applications
  • 2015 - 2021 market (MWh, $M) for key battery pack components: Li-ion cells, battery management system, power electronics, thermal management, wiring/interconnects, housing, assembly
  • Supply chain for battery packs and their main components
  • Insight into battery pack components, main technologies, and innovations
  • Insight into second-life battery applications, and battery recycling